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What is Schizophrenia | major Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

what is schizophrenia disorder

What is Schizophrenia ?

Schizophrenia is a severe mental and chronic disorder that affects how a person feels, thinks and behaves. People who suffer from schizophrenia may seem that they became ignorant with reality. Although like other mental disorders such as bipolar disorder,  schizophrenia is not as common, the symptoms can be extremely disabling.

Symptoms of schizophrenia

Symptoms of schizophrenia normally start between ages 15 and 30. In some cases, children also have schizophrenia.

According to The symptoms of schizophrenia there are three categories:

(1)  Positive                   (2) negative            (3) cognitive

Positive symptoms: “Positive” symptoms are not usually seen in healthy people these are psychotic behaviors. People who suffer with positive symptoms may “lose touch” with few aspects of reality. Symptoms are:

  • Delusions
  • Hallucinations
  • Movement disorders
  • Thought disorders

Negative symptoms: “Negative” symptoms are connected with major depression and disruptions to normal behaviors and emotions. Symptoms are:

  • “Flat affect”
  • Reduced speaking
  • Reduced feelings of enjoyment in daily life
  • Difficulty beginning as well as sustaining activities

Cognitive symptoms: cognitive symptoms are difficult to analyze for some patients, but for others, they are extremely severe and patients may notice rapid changes in their memory or various other aspects of thinking. Symptoms are:

  • Many Problems with “working memory”
  • Poor “executive functioning”
  • Trouble in focusing or paying attention

Risk Factors

After knowing about What is Schizophrenia? Know we’re talking about many factors that are responsible for the risk of developing schizophrenia.

Genes and environment: Scientists say that schizophrenia runs in families too. However, there are lots of people who have schizophrenia but his/her family member doesn’t have it and same in opposite case.

According to Scientists, many different genes may improve the risk of schizophrenia, but that not a single gene can causes the disorder by itself.

Scientists also believe that interactions among genes and various aspects of the individual’s environment are essential for schizophrenia to develop.

Different Environmental factors which may involve:

  • Psychosocial factors
  • Exposure to viruses
  • Problems during birth
  • Malnutrition before birth

Different brain chemistry: Scientists also believe that lack of balance in the complex, interrelated chemical reactions of the brain engaging the glutamate and neurotransmitters dopamine plays a major role in schizophrenia.

Some experts also believe problems in brain development before the birth may lead to some faulty connections. The brain also experience major changes in puberty, and these major changes could cause psychotic symptoms.

Treatments and Therapies

Because the different causes of schizophrenia are unknown yet, treatments focus on eliminating or reducing the symptoms of the disease. Treatments are:

Antipsychotics

Antipsychotic medications for schizophrenia are usually taken daily in liquid form or in pill. There are also some antipsychotics injections that are given just once or twice a month. When some people start taking medications then they have side effects, but after a few days most side effects go away. Doctors and patients can work jointly to find the best medication, and the right dose.

Psychosocial Treatments

These treatments are useful after doctor and patients find a medication that works well. Learning coping skills to tackle the everyday challenges of schizophrenia facilitates people to chase their daily life goals, such as attending your school or work. Individuals who take part in regular psychosocial treatment are very less likely to have lapses or be hospitalized.

Coordinated specialty care (CSC)

This cure model integrates psycho-social therapies, medication, case management, family involvement, employment services and supported education and all aimed at decreasing symptoms as well as improving quality of life. RAISE (Recovery after an Initial Schizophrenia Episode) is a research project which is designed to decrease the likelihood of a long term disability that various people who suffer with schizophrenia normally experience and help them lead independent, productive lives.

How you can help your loved one ?

  • Encourage them to Get treatment and support them to stay in treatment
  • Remember that their beliefs seem real to them
  • Ask them that you know that everyone has their right to see things according to their own way
  • Be kind, respectful and supportive without tolerating inappropriate or dangerous behavior
  • Check and find if there are some support groups in your area

 

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